Disability and Armed Conflict

Started in May 2016

Background

An estimated 15 percent of the world’s population, approximately 1 billion people, have some form of disability (involving a physical, psychosocial and/or intellectual impairments) a large percentage of which will be living in conflict affect states.

Conflict not only renders a person disabled directly, e.g. when a landmine blast amputates a leg, it also inflicts indirect harm since persons with disabilities may face physical and/or communication barriers to accessing emergency information and humanitarian assistance, rendering them more vulnerable to harm and potentially exacerbating a pre-existing impairment. Persons with disabilities are also at higher risk of injury or death during periods of armed conflict, either as specific targets or through insufficient support to allow them to flee the violence. Despite the high number of persons with disabilities affected by armed conflict and the particular support that they need, persons with disabilities are too often the forgotten victims of armed conflict.

Objective

This project aims to ensure better protection of persons with disabilities in situations of armed conflict and in its immediate aftermath by identifying the legal obligations to protect and assist persons with disabilities during conflict an by providing academic and policy communities, states, intergovernmental and non-governmental organisations, armed non-state actors, humanitarian organisations and persons with disabilities with:

  • A previously unavailable and detailed explanation and analysis of legal obligations (under international humanitarian law, international human rights law, international refugee law and weapons law) to protect and assist persons with disabilities during armed conflict and its aftermath;
  • Previously unavailable information concerning the situation of persons with disabilities during armed conflict and in its aftermath in five case study states - the Democratic Republic of Congo, Colombia, Palestine, Ukraine and Vietnam
  • An explanation and justification of what laws, policies and practices are required to meet the obligation to protect and assist persons with disabilities during and in the aftermath of armed conflict.

Methodology

The project’s methodology involves a combination of tailored desk research; field research including interviews of persons with disabilities, their carers and humanitarian personnel; and field workshops to disseminate and test preliminary findings, seek feedback on discrete issues and empower stakeholders. It involves multidisciplinary applied research, bringing together: legal, policy and medical expertise; experienced researchers; persons with disabilities living in conflict-affected states; and humanitarian personnel engaged in assessing the needs of persons with disabilities in armed conflict and in its aftermath.

Donors and Partners

The project has been awarded a research grant from the Swiss Network for International Studies (SNIS) and is being undertaken in partnership with Humanity & Inclusion (the new name of Handicap International), the Institute for Biomedical Ethics at the University of Basel, Psychiatric University Clinics Basel, the UN Special Rapporteur on the rights of persons with disabilities and the Legacy of War Foundation.

The first 12 months of the project were supported by Pro Victimis.

RESEARCHERS

Picture of Annyssa Bellal

Annyssa Bellal

Senior Research Fellow and Strategic Adviser on International Humanitarian Law

Annyssa Bellal's areas of expertise include public international law, international humanitarian law, international human rights law and armed non-state actors.

Picture of Alice Priddy

Alice Priddy

Alice Priddy's current main research areas concern the rights of persons with disabilities during and in the immediate aftermath of armed conflict.

Portrait of Giles Duley

Giles Duley

Photographer

Giles Duley is a British documentary photographer and photojournalist. His work has been exhibited and published worldwide in numerous papers and magazines and he has talked about his experiences on television, radio and at several international and national events.

OUTPUT

Publication on Disability and Armed Conflict: A First Study on its Kind

The publication Disability and Armed Conflict brings attention to the devastating impact conflict has on persons with disabilities and, crucially, highlights that many of the key international humanitarian law (IHL) provisions that serve to minimize the impact of armed conflict – such as the proportionality assessment and advanced effective warnings – are not being applied in a disability inclusive manner, resulting in persons with disabilities being killed, seriously injured or left behind as families flee armed attacks.

It offers eight key findings and recommendations for states, humanitarian organizations and the UN Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The findings and associated recommendations relate to: the application of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) in differing conflict settings, the relationship between the CRPD and IHL, as well as analysis of a number of key IHL norms, including adverse distinction and humane treatment from a disability perspective.

The findings also challenge the miss-conceptions that continue to dominate disability discourse: including incorrect understandings of ‘disability’, the under-inclusive focus on physical and sensory impairment, and prevention of primary impairment being wrongly included within disability-rights.

Ensuring Concrete Changes on the Ground

The project's team conducted training sessions in Palestine, Ukraine and Vietnam, to provide stakeholders on the ground – local organizations of persons with disabilities, state representatives, UN agencies and other international humanitarian organizations – with an overview of international law applicable to persons with disabilities and their inclusion in norms related to the conduct of hostilities.

A Photo Exhibition to Raise Awareness on this Issue

Determined to bring attention to the lives of persons with disabilities living in armed conflict, we have partnered with the photographer Giles Duley to tell the stories of some of those affected by armed conflict.

His photo exhibition, accessible to persons with a visual impairment, told the stories of persons with disabilities during and following armed conflicts including Odai in Gaza, Yasmine in Iraq, Betty in Uganda and Kholoud who fled Syria with her family and now lives in Holland after having spent almost three years in Lebanon.

Views from our Experts

Our New Publication on Disability and Armed Conflict: An Expert's View Mina Mojtahedi

Mina Mojtahedi, Disability Adviser at the ICRC, tells in this video about the importance of our new publication for both the ICRC as well as for the protection of persons with disabilities during and following armed conflict.

Our New Publication on Disability and Armed Conflict: An Expert's View Andrew Clapham

Andrew Clapham, Professor of International Law at the Graduate Institute and member of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights in South Sudan, tells in this video about the importance of our new publication for the protection of persons with disabilities during and following armed conflict.

Our New Publication on Disability and Armed Conflict: An Expert's View Catalina Devandas

Catalina Devandas,UN Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, tells in this video about the importance of our new publication for the protection of persons with disabilities during and following armed conflict.

Launch of the Publication at the ICRC

First to be Forgotten – Persons with Disabilities and Armed Conflict

Missed the launch of our publication on Disability and Armed Conflict? Listen to the launch event co-organized with the ICRC and which explored the impact of armed conflict on persons with disabilities.

 

Publications

Cover page of the publication

Disability and Armed Conflict

April 2019

Alice Priddy

Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights

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NEWS AND EVENTS

View of the cover page of the publication Diability and Armed Conflict News

Our New Publication Addresses the Devastating Impact of Conflict on Persons with Disabilities

May 2019

Our new publication brings attention to the devastating impact conflict has on persons with disabilities and highlights that many of the key international humanitarian law provisions that serve to minimize the impact of armed conflict are not being applied in a disability inclusive manner, resulting in persons with disabilities being killed, seriously injured or left behind as families flee armed attacks.

Read more >

Group photo of particiants in the training News

A Workshop in Vietnam on How the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Applies to Survivors of the Conflict

February 2019

Our local partner in Vietnam, the Association for Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities, hosted a one day workshop as part of our research project Disability and Armed Conflict.

Read more >

Workshop in Kiev on disability and armed conflict News

Disability and Armed Conflict in Ukraine: Training Local and Humanitarian Actors

December 2018

Our Senior Researcher Alice Priddy led last week a workshop in Kiev – in partnership with the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights and the Global Protection Cluster in Ukraine – on the protection of persons with disabilities living in the occupied territories of Donetsk and Luhansk.

 

Read more >

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LLM in International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights: What our Alumni Say

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Cover page of the book Event

International Humanitarian Law and Non-Sate Actors: Debates, Law and Practice

March 2020, 18:00-20:30

This event marks the launch in Geneva of the book International Humanitarian Law and Non-State Actors: Debates, Law and Practice.

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Photos taken from the Norse Attack Map.     The map shows in realtime attacks that happen on the Norse honeypots. Event

ESIL Lecture: Disruptive Military Technologies

February 2020, 14:00-16:00

Robin Geiß, Swiss Chair of IHL at the Geneva Academy, will explore the disruptive potential of new military technologies with a focus on those areas where these technologies could fall through the cracks of the international legal order.

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Short Course

The Law of Non-International Armed Conflicts

2 April - May 2020

This short course discusses the protection offered by international humanitarian law (IHL) in non-international armed conflicts (NIACs) and addresses some problems and controversies specific to IHL of NIACs, including the difficulty to ensure the respect of IHL by armed non-state actors.

Read more

A wide view of the UN Security Council Short Course

Sanctions in Public International Law

14 February - March 2020

This short course provides an introduction to the regime of sanctions under international law and their effectiveness in addressing contemporary forms of conflict. It addresses the questions related to state responsibility, the pacific settlement of international disputes and the role of the International Court of Justice.

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Central African Republic, Ouham province, village of Ouogo. International Humanitarian Law dissemination session to members of the Peoples' Army for the Restoration of Democracy. Project

From Words to Deeds: A Study of Armed Non-State Actors’ Practice and Interpretation of International Humanitarian and Human Rights Norms

Started in January 2017

This project aims at compiling and analysing the practice and interpretation of selected international humanitarian law and human rights norms by armed non-state actors (ANSAs). It has a pragmatic double objective: first, to offer a comparative analysis of IHL and human rights norms from the perspective of ANSAs, and second, to inform strategies of humanitarian engagement with ANSAs, in particular the content of a possible ‘Model Code of Conduct’.

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A wheelchair completely destroyed after the bombing of a civilian area Project

Disability and Armed Conflict

Started in May 2016

This project aims to ensure better protection of and assistance for persons with disabilities in situations of armed conflict or its aftermath by identifying legal obligations to protect and assist persons with disabilities during conflict, and the policies and practices required to put these obligations into effect.

Read more

Cover of the publication Publication

From Words to Deeds: A Study of Armed Non-State Actors’ Practice and Interpretations of International Humanitarian and Human Rights Norms

published on December 2019

Annyssa Bellal, Pascal Bongard, Ezequiel Heffes

Read more

Cover page of the article Publication

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published on November 2019

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